# Onyx Examples

# Fibonacci Sequence

This example shows three different ways to do the same thing: compute Fibonacci numbers.

```
use core.iter
use core { printf }
//
// Way number 1: A simple for-loop
// This method simply uses a for-loop like you would in C to generate
// the Fibonacci numbers. No tricks to it.
//
fib_for_loop :: (n: i32) -> u64 {
a: u64 = 0;
b: u64 = 1;
for 0 .. n {
tmp := a;
a = b;
b = tmp + b;
}
return a;
}
//
// Way number 2: Functional folding
// This way creates an iterator that will yield n integers, thats the
// iter.counter piped to iter.take(n). Then, for each one of those numbers
// it steps the state, computing the Fibonacci numbers in the process.
// The final result is the "a" member of the final state.
FibState :: struct { a, b: u64 }
fib_by_fold :: (n: i32) => {
end_state :=
// This creates an infinite iterator that simply counts up from 0.
iter.counter()
// This limits only taking the first n values.
|> iter.take(n)
// This performs a "fold" or "reduce" operation.
|> iter.fold(
// This defines the initial accumulator state.
FibState.{ a = 0, b = 1 },
// This defines the "folding" function. It takes the next value
// from the iterator, which we simply ignore because we do not
// need it, and the previous value of the accumulator. It then
// computes and returns the next value for the accumulator.
// iter.fold returns the final value of the accumulator.
(_, state) => FibState.{
a = state.b,
b = state.a + state.b
}
);
return end_state.a;
}
//
// Way number 3: A custom iterator
// This way produces an iterator that yields consecutive Fibonacci numbers.
// This is slightly faster than the previous methods because it does not have
// to redo all the work for every query.
//
fib_iterator :: (n: i32) =>
// This is implemented using a generator, which is a custom iterator
// that yields values according to the "next" function defined below.
iter.generator(
// The initial state of the generator.
&.{ a = cast(u64) 0, b = cast(u64) 1, counter = n },
// The generation function. This takes in a pointer to the state
// and must return 2 things: the next value and a boolean of whether
// to continue or not.
//
// Notice that the parameter's type is a polymorphic here; notice the $.
// This is because the above structure literal is entirely type infered;
// no explicit type was given to it. Therefore, there is no type we can
// write here that would be correct. We could make a structure for it,
// but in this case it is fine to let the compiler do a little magic.
(state: & $Ctx) -> (u64, bool) {
if state.counter <= 0 {
return 0, false;
}
tmp := state.a;
state.a = state.b;
state.b = state.b + tmp;
state.counter -= 1;
return tmp, true;
}
);
main :: () {
// Print the results from fib_for_loop
for i in 0 .. 90 {
printf("{}: {}\n", i, fib_for_loop(i));
}
// Print the results from fib_by_fold
for i in 0 .. 90 {
printf("{}: {}\n", i, fib_by_fold(i));
}
// Print the results from fib_iterator
for value, index in fib_iterator(90) {
printf("{}: {}\n", index, value);
}
}
```

## Want to learn more?

You can learn more details about Onyx by visiting the docs! There is more examples, a reference manual for the language, and documentation for the standard library.

© 2020-2024 Brendan Hansen